Firstly, Let us distinguish patch cord differences from color:
SM Fiber : Single mode Fiber, This is an optical fiber that supports one spatial mode of light propagation. These fibers typically have a 9 micron core, Yellow Color, have G652B, G652D, G655, G657A1, G657A2;
MM Fiber: Multi mode Fiber, This is an optical fiber which transmits or emits multiple modes of light. These fibers usually have a large core, typically 50 or 62.5 microns, Orange Color, 50/125, 62.5/125;
OM3/OM4 MM Fiber: Blue Color, OM3(50/125-150), OM4(50/125-300) Multi mode Fiber;
PC (Physical Contact): This is a fiber optic polishing style that has a convex, domed endface.
UPC (Ultra-polished physical contact): This is a fiber optic polishing style that has a convex, domed endface. It is highly polished to attain enhanced performance.
APC (Angled Physical Contact): This is a fiber optic polishing style that has an 8 degree angle on the endface. This connector style is typically indicated by a green connector body or green strain relief boot.
Secondly, Let us distinguish patch cord difference from product function:
G652B: Must be support 10Gbit/s system and transmission distance exceed 3000km; and 40Gbit/s system and transmission distance are 40km.
G652D: Roughly the same with G652B, can work in 1360nm-1530nm, G652D are the most strict index & the best compatibility optical fiber in the family of G652 optical fiber. Usually, will recommend G652D patch cord to customer.
G655: Widely used in WDM ( Wavelength Division Multiplexing ) & SDH ( Synchronous Digital Hierarchy).
G657: Compare with other Singlemode optical fiber, the most feature are Bending but not sensitive, that is, G657 optical fiber bending but loss more smaller, can widely used in pipeline or FTTH, many bending and fixed on wall socket. G657A1 minimum bend radius are 10mm, G657A2 minimum bend radius are 7.5mm, G657A1 & G657A2 are fully compatible .
50/125um & 62.5/125um are normal Multimode optical fiber; 50/125um transmission distance are farther than 62.5/125um.
OM3(50/125-150), OM4(50/125-300) both are 10Gigabit Multi-Mode optical fiber, OM4 are OM3 updated version, transmission distance up to 550 meter, are widely used in IDC Room as well as Data Center Room and Storage Area Network (SAN)network wiring.
Thirdly, According to Outer Sheath Material have Normal PVC; Flame Retardant PVC; OFNR; LSZH; Flame Retardant LSZH.
PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride; that is, normal optical fiber outer sheath also cheap outer sheath.
Flame Retardant PVC: Add flame retardant in the PVC outer sheath, when optical fiber on fire, can control fire in the local area not spread, to avoid causing more losses.
OFNR: Optical Fiber Nonconductive Riser; It's American Flame Retardant Standard.
LSZH: Low Smoke Zero Halogen; Not contain halogen (F, Cl, Br, I, At), also not contain Pb, Cd, Cr and Hg material, when optical fiber on fire not emit toxic fumes (Eg: HX; CO; CO2, etc.)
Flame Retardant LSZH: Add flame retardant in the LSZH outer sheath, can control fire in the local area not spread.